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Generalizability assessment papers

SourcePMIDTitleDisease CategoryA Priori/A PosterioriScore/Non-ScoreTutorial/Method
PubMed24926156The use of propensity scores to assess the generalizability of results from randomized trialsNot specifiedA PosterioriScorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed11870014Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clinical practice?Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreWhat is the percentage of patients who would be excluded by each exclusion criterion?
Cochrane12153370Representation of the elderly, women, and minorities in heart failure clinical trialsCardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreHow many elderly, women, and minorities are excluded by trials?
PubMed14628985How many subjects with major depressive disorder meet eligibility requirements of an antidepressant efficacy trial?Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreList the major reasons for exclusion
PubMed14770052Exclusion criteria used in antidepressant efficacy trials: consistency across studies and representativeness of samples included.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreList the commonly used psychiatric exclusion criteria
PubMed15705630Are clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis generalizable to routine practice? A re-evaluation of trial entry criteria.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PrioriNon-scoreReview the eligibility criteria of trilas on rheumatoid arthritis
PubMed15876909Effect of study criteria on recruitment and generalizability of the results.Not specifiedA PrioriNon-scoreWhat is the number of patients who would meet usua eligibility criteria of antipsychotic trials?
PubMed16227797Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols.HIV/AIDSA PrioriNon-scoreHow many women, and minorities are excluded by each criterion in 32 NIH-funded HIV trials?
CINAHL16339480Potential consequences for recruitment, power, and external validity of requirements for additional risk factors for eligibility in randomized controlled trials in secondary prevention of stroke.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreEvaluate the eligibility criteria in stroke prevention trials.
PsycINFO16569712Randomized Controlled Trials: Do They Have External Validity for Patients With Multiple Comorbidities?Not specifiedA PrioriNon-scoreAssess the multiple chronic conditions of patients who are eligible for 5 RCTs
PsycINFO17502778Relevance of exclusion criteria in antidepressant clinical trials: A replication study.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreHow many patients would be excluded by antidepressant RCT
PubMed18438906Assessment of unmet needs and the lack of generalizability in the design of randomized controlled trials for scleroderma treatment.Skin diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreDetermine the proportion of patients with SSc who would theoretically be eligible for SSC trials
PubMed18501096Restrictive eligibility limits access to newer therapies in non-small-cell lung cancer: the implications of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 4599CancerA PrioriNon-scoreDetermine the proportion of patients with newly evaluated advanced NSCLC seen at Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) who would have been eligible for ECOG 4599
PubMed18557666Generalizability of clinical trial results for major depression to community samples: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreApplied standard set of exclusion criteria in trials on MDE to 2001-2002 NESARC data and assessed the percentage of patients who would be excluded.
PubMed18577549Learning from past mistakes: assessing trial quality, power and eligibility in non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus randomized controlled trials.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PrioriNon-scoreThe inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared with an SLE database to determine the proportion of patients from the database who would theoretically be eligible for these trials.
PsycINFO18579319Generalizability of clinical trials for alcohol dependence to community samples.Drug or alcohol abuseA PrioriNon-scoreAssessed the proportion of community dwelling adults with cannabis dependence who would have been eligible for a typical cannabis dependence treatment study.
PubMed19057955Analysis of patient selection and external validity in the Swedish contribution to the COLOR trial.SurgeryA PosterioriNon-scoreAssessed how many patients were excluded post randomization
PubMed19342462Selection criteria and generalizability within the counterfactual framework: explaining the paradox of antidepressant-induced suicidality?Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreA counterfactual model is developed to represent the selection process explicitly. This simple extension of the standard counterfactual model is used to explore the implications of restrictive exclusion criteria intended to eliminate high-risk individuals.
PubMed20547574Generalizing evidence from randomized clinical trials to target populations: The ACTG 320 trial.HIV/AIDSmisc / PATENon-scoreThe proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results.
PsycINFO21078225The generalizability of antidepressant efficacy trials to routine psychiatric out-patient practice.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreEligibility was assessed by stepwise application of commonly used exclusion criteria. Influence of eligibility on treatment outcome was investigated in a subsample of the 1653 patients who had at least one follow-up assessment (n = 626). Eligible and non-eligible patients were compared on proportion of response (50% reduction) and remission on MADRS
Cochrane22459203Generalisability of the results of the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON): does self-selection play a role?CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreBackground characteristics were compared between male respondents on the first questionnaire (n = 92,802), eligible subjects among them (n = 18,570) and those randomised (n = 10,627) and Statistics Netherlands 2002-2005 (SN) (n = 5289) or GLOBE study-data (Dutch cohort) (n = 696).
PubMed22495990Generalizability of clinical trial results for generalized anxiety disorder to community samples.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreWe applied a standard set of eligibility criteria representative of GAD pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with past 12 months GAD (n = 894), and to a subgroup of participants seeking treatment (n = 329). Our aim was to assess how many participants with GAD would fulfil typical eligibility criteria
PubMed23060323Eligibility criteria in randomized phase II and III adjuvant and neoadjuvant breast cancer trials: not a significant barrier to enrollment.CancerA PrioriNon-scoreProportions of cases with 'not met' eligibility criteria were assessed for each category in each trial.
PubMed23075287External validity of randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control and vascular disease: how representative are participants?Endocrine diseaseA PrioriNon-scoreInclusion and exclusion criteria from each trial were applied to data on the population of people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland in 2008 (n = 180,590) in a population-based cross-sectional study and the number and proportion of people eligible for each trial was determined.
PsycINFO23137143The generalizability of psychotherapy efficacy trials in major depressive disorder: An analysis of the influence of patient selection in efficacy trials on symptom outcome in daily practice.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreInvestigated the influence of exclusion criteria on symptom outcome by multivariate regression models in a sample of patients suffering from MDD according to the MINIplus from a routine clinical practice setting
PubMed23242482Representativeness of the dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban clinical trial populations to real-world atrial fibrillation patients in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional analysis using the General Practice Research Database.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreAssessed the atrial fibrillation patients who would be eligible for anticoagulant treatment trials
PubMed23553373The use of propensity scores and observational data to estimate randomized controlled trial generalizability bias.Not specifiedA PrioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed23561233Generalizability of clinical trial results for bipolar disorder to community samples: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreDetermine the proportion of participants with bipolar depression or acute mania who would have been excluded from a clinical trial by typical eligibility criteria
PubMed23617533Not-in-trial simulation I: Bridging cardiovascular risk from clinical trials to real-life conditions.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreDetermine the number of patients that would be excluded from trials.
PubMed24475060The real world mental health needs of heart failure patients are not reflected by the depression randomized controlled trial evidence.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scorePatients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression
PubMed24621557Why do GPs exclude patients from participating in research? An exploration of adherence to and divergence from trial criteria.Not specifiedA PrioriNon-scoreDetermine the proportion of patients excluded on account of trial eligibility compared with other reasons, and to explore the impact of such exclusions on the management and generalizability of RCTs
PubMed25154011Are participants in pharmacological and psychotherapy treatment trials for social anxiety disorder representative of patients in real-life settings?Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreApplied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of SAD. They aim to assess how many participants with SAD would fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed25307417Assessing the generalizability of randomized trial results to target populations.Not specifiedmisc / PATENon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed25580674Generalizability of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trial results for borderline personality disorder to community samples.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreApplied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD. The aim was to assess how many participants with BPD would not fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed26747392Exclusion of Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients With Prior Cancer From Clinical Trials: Is This Justified?CancerA PrioriNon-scoreHow many patients would be excluded by gastrointestinal cancer trials?
PubMed26866293Generalizability of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Biologic Agent Clinical Trials.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PrioriNon-scorePatients at a single clinical encounter were assessed for overall trial eligibility as well as eligibility across 3 domains: demographics, disease activity, and medication exposure
PubMed27379465Generalizability of Pharmacologic and Psychotherapy Clinical Trial Results for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to Community Samples.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreApplied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacologic and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD in the previous 12 months (n = 1,715) and then to a subsample of participants seeking treatment (n = 366). Our aim was to assess how many participants with PTSD would fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed27491758Generalizing Treatment Effect Estimates From Sample to Population: A Case Study in the Difficulties of Finding Sufficient Data.Not specifiedmisc / PATENon-scoreWe use a case study to illustrate how to generalize treatment effect estimates from a randomized trial sample to a target population, in particular comparing the sample of children in a randomized trial of a supplemental program for Head Start centers (
PubMed27663386Eligibility of real-life patients with COPD for inclusion in trials of inhaled long-acting bronchodilator therapy.Respiratory diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreEligibility was calculated for each RCT by applying these criteria to a uniquely representative, well-characterised population of patients with COPD from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database
Cochrane27844227A novel use of the Spine Tango registry to evaluate selection bias in patient recruitment into clinical studies: an analysis of patients participating in the Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Outcome Study (LSOS)Musculoskeletal diseaseA PosterioriNon-scorePatient records and imaging were evaluated in relation to the admission criteria for LSOS to identify those who would have been eligible for participation but were not enrolled
PubMed28088058Has the symptom severity inclusion requirement narrowed the definition of major depressive disorder in antidepressant efficacy trials?Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreCompared the distribution of DSM-IV MDD criteria scores in patients who scored at or above or below the 3 cutoff scores on the HAMD most commonly used for inclusion in an AET
PubMed28416124Assessment of the External Validity of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Society for Medical Oncology Guidelines for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in a Population of Patients Aged 80 Years and Older.CancerA PrioriNon-scorematched a cohort of NSCLC patients aged older than 80 years from the Moffitt Cancer Center database with the studies' eligibility criteria to check their qualification for at least 2 studies
PubMed28535275Transportability of trial results using inverse odds of sampling weights.Not specifiedmisc / PATENon-scorean inverse odds weighting approach that can easily operationalize transportability
PubMed29097612Generalizability of Clinical Trial Results for Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreTo assess the generalizability of adolescent clinical trials for MDD, we applied a standard set of eligibility criteria representative of clinical trials to all adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey
Cochrane29462814Generalizability of Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Fish Oil Supplementation for Attenuating Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Rescue Workers in JapanMental disorderA PosterioriNon-score
CINAHL29915956Generalizability of clinical trials of advanced melanoma in the real-world, population-based setting.CancerA PrioriNon-scoreBased on eligibility criteria as described in registration trials of vemurafenib (Vem) and ipilimumab (Ipi), we classified patients into trial-eligible and ineligible and those treated and untreated with these agents
CINAHL29936654Eligibility of real-world patients with chemo-refractory, K-RAS wild-type, metastatic colorectal cancer for palliative intent regorafenib monotherapy.CancerA PrioriNon-scoreExamined treatment attrition rates and eligibility for regorafenib in routine practice
PubMed30096830Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria of Clinical Trials for Insomnia.Sleep disorderA PrioriNon-scoreThe current two-part study examined (1) the currently applied eligibility criteria in Phase II and III RCTs examining sleep medication; (2) how these criteria match with the insomnia population as a whole; and (3) how inclusion rates can be changed by an adaptation of these criteria.
CINAHL30175440Eligibility for clinical trials is limited for youth with type 2 diabetes: Insights from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T2D Clinic Registry.Endocrine diseaseA PrioriNon-scoreUtilized Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Registry enrollment data to estimate the percentage of patients who would be excluded from current T2D trials based on out-of-range HbA1c levels.
PubMed30218805Treatment of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Single-Center Experience of 86 Patients and a Critique of the A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) Trial.Neuronal diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreAll cases of treated brain AVMs from 2004 to 2017 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed and included in the analysis if they met ARUBA trial inclusion criteria
Cochrane30564154The Representativeness of Participants With Severe Mental Illness in a Psychosocial Clinical TrialMental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreUtilized an anonymised case register to determine if participants in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel psychosocial health intervention aiming to improve physical health in SMI had similar severity of illness to eligible non-participants
PubMed4020412Selection bias in clinical trials.Not specifiedA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed8690832Subject selection biases in clinical trials: data from a multicenter schizophrenia treatment study.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed10203081Improved survival and reduction in local failure rates after preoperative radiotherapy: evidence for the generalizability of the results of Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial.CancerBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed10470428Small-cell lung cancer: patients included in clinical trials are not representative of the patient population as a whole.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed10506672Generalizing from a controlled trial: the effects of patient preference versus randomization on the outcome of inpatient versus outpatient chronic pain management.PainA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed10891631Generalizability of project MATCH: a comparison of clients enrolled to those not enrolled in the study at one aftercare site.Not specifiedBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11053697Clinical trials of unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in addition to aspirin for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris: do the results apply to all patients?Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed10751862Prostate specific antigen response to mitoxantrone and prednisone in patients with refractory prostate cancer: prognostic factors and generalizability of a multicenter trial to clinical practice.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11165726The generalizability of trial data; a comparison of beta-blocker trial participants with a prospective cohort of women taking beta-blockers in pregnancy.PregnancyA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11434951Generalisability of clinical trials in otitis media with effusion.Ear diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11470387Generalizability of trial results based on randomized versus nonrandomized allocation of OME infants to ventilation tubes or watchful waiting.Ear diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11694202Generalizability of findings from a chewing tobacco cessation clinical trial.SmokingA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed11737343How generalizable are the results of large randomized controlled trials of antiretroviral therapy?HIV/AIDSA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed12694711External validity of a randomised clinical trial of temporomandibular disorders: analysis of the patients who refused to participate in research.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed12701762Representativeness of trial populations: an example from a trial of adenotonsillectomy in children.Sleep disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed12701935Does clinical trial subject selection restrict the ability to generalize use and cost of health services to "real life" subjects?Respiratory diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed15229421Assessing clinical generalizability in sedation studies of upper GI endoscopy.Endocrine diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed15334432Differences between participants and nonparticipants in an exercise trial for adults with rheumatoid arthritis.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed15639683External validity of randomised controlled trials: "to whom do the results of this trial apply?".Not specifiedA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed15695979Population characteristics in cervical cancer trials: search for external validity.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed15994721Generalizability of antidepressant efficacy trials: differences between depressed psychiatric outpatients who would or would not qualify for an efficacy trial.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed16225942Selection bias of elderly patients with chronic angina referred for catheterization.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed16639738Generalizability of cancer clinical trial results: prognostic differences between participants and nonparticipants.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO17053977Empirical evaluation of the generalizability of the sample from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed17210880External validity of clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction.Cardiovascular diseasesBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed17253599External validity of ST elevation myocardial infarction trials: the Zwolle studies.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed17453387To whom do the results of this trial apply?" External validity of a randomized controlled trial involving 130 patients scheduled for primary total hip replacement.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed17896305Comparison of survival among eligible patients not enrolled versus enrolled in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed18381709Generalizing from clinical trial data: a case study. The risk of suicidality among pediatric antidepressant users.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed18414962Lifetime characteristics of participants and non-participants in a smoking cessation trial: implications for external validity and public health impact.SmokingA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed18619799Randomized patients in IBS research had different disease characteristics compared to eligible and recruited patients.Digestive diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed19116800Characteristics of individuals with insomnia who seek treatment in a clinical setting versus those who volunteer for a randomized controlled trial.Sleep disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed19287330Examination of external validity in randomized controlled trials for adjuvant treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.CancerBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed19339358Can phase III trial results of antidepressant medications be generalized to clinical practice? A STAR*D report.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed19556533Patients enrolled in large randomized clinical trials of antiplatelet treatment for prevention after transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke are not representative of patients in clinical practice: the Netherlands Stroke Survey.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed19631869Under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials.SurgeryA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed20016742Generalizability of toxicity data from oncology clinical trials to clinical practice: toxicity of irinotecan-based regimens in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed20589596Trials assessing parmacotherapeutic management of aggression in psychiatric patients: comparability with clinical practice.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed20670761Clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction by choice and by randomization.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed20798576Patients with borderline personality disorder not participating in an RCT: are they different?Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed20816030Representativeness of participants in a clinical trial for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Comparison with adults from a large observational study.Mental disorderBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21059426Comparison of baseline characteristics, management and outcome of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in versus not in clinical trials.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21078416The generalizability of participants in Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program 474, a multi-site randomized cardiac bypass surgery trial.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane21200334Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Saphenous Vein Graft Stenting Who Were or Were Not nrolled in the Stenting of Saphenous Vein Grafts andomized Controlled TrialCardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21325996Age, exclusion criteria, and generalizability of randomized trials enrolling kidney transplant recipients.Kidney diseaseBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21565848Evaluating the 'all-comers' design: a comparison of participants in two 'all-comers' PCI trials with non-participants.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21775882Cancer trials versus the real world in the United States.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed21956723ALS clinical trials: do enrolled patients accurately represent the ALS population?Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO22201327Racial/ethnic differences in adults in randomized clinical trials of binge eating disorder.Ear diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed22316122To whom do the results of the multicenter, randomized, controlled INSECT trial (ISRCTN 24023541) apply?--assessment of external validity.SurgeryA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed22343692Patients enrolled in randomized controlled trials do not represent the inflammatory bowel disease patient population.Digestive diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed22371462Enrollment of extremely low birth weight infants in a clinical research study may not be representative.Neonatal diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed23092978Sampling bias in an internet treatment trial for depression.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed23242479The older the better: are elderly study participants more non-representative? A cross-sectional analysis of clinical trial and observational study samples.Not specifiedA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed23517248Comparison of treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients included in a clinical trial versus daily practice in The Netherlands.CancerBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed23633161Generalizability in the family-to-family education program randomized waitlist-control trial.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed23674318Inclusion of minorities and women in cancer clinical trials, a decade later: Have we improved?CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed23845385Using comparative effectiveness design to improve the generalizability of bipolar treatment trials data: contrasting LiTMUS baseline data with pre-existing placebo controlled trials.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed24594552Representativeness of RELAX-AHF clinical trial population in acute heart failure.Cardiovascular diseasesBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed24627277In and out, good and bad news, of generalizability of SWOG treatment trial results.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed24632781Generalizability of findings from efficacy trials for chronic depression: an analysis of eligibility criteria.Mental disorderA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed24647464External validity of a trial comprised of elderly patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed24975869External validity of the ARISTOTLE trial in real-life atrial fibrillation patients.Cardiovascular diseasesBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed25024761A distribution-based method for assessing the differences between clinical trial target populations and patient populations in electronic health records.Not specifiedA PrioriScoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed25100338Assessing the external validity of a randomized controlled trial of anthelminthics in mothers and their children in Entebbe, Uganda.Digestive diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed25399847Evaluating the generalizability of a large streamlined cardiovascular trial: comparing hospitals and patients in the dual antiplatelet therapy study versus the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane25427819Symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in clinical trials and in a population-based studyRespiratory diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed25664626Baseline Characteristics and Mortality Outcomes of Control Group Participants and Eligible Non-Responders in the NELSON Lung Cancer Screening Study.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO25828873Predicting participation in psychiatric randomized controlled trials: Insights from the STEP-BD.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed25986472An Approach to Assess Generalizability in Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Case Study of the Whole Systems Demonstrator Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Telehealth with Usual Care for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions.Not specifiedA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26174313Similarities and differences between patients included and excluded from a randomized clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation for improving glucose tolerance in prediabetes: interpreting broader applicability.Endocrine diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26192398Characteristics and Outcomes of Eligible Nonenrolled Patients in a Mechanical Ventilation Trial of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.Respiratory diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26283667Exploring threats to generalisability in a large international rehabilitation trial (AVERT).RehabilitationA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26330533Clinical Trial Participants With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Differ From Patients Treated in Real-World Practice.CancerBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26362666External validity of a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of severe infections caused by MRSA.InfectionA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26562046Generalizability of SPRINT Results to the U.S. Adult Population.Cardiovascular diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26743093How Generalizable Are the Results From Trials of Direct Antiviral Agents to People Coinfected With HIV/HCV in the Real World?HIV/AIDSA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26820188Multivariate analysis of the population representativeness of related clinical studies.Not specifiedA PrioriScoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed26825855Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.Drug or alcohol abuseA PosterioriNon-scoreGIST 2.0
PubMed27033859External validity of the "all-comers" design: insights from the BIOSCIENCE trial.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27104965Differences between unselected patients and participants in multiple myeloma clinical trials in US: a threat to external validity.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27109827Value of treatment in clinical trials versus the real world: the case of abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) for postchemotherapy metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients in Sweden.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27283295Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial.SmokingA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27520290Older patients are still under-represented in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease.Mental disorderA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27598694Correlating eligibility criteria generalizability and adverse events using Big Data for patients and clinical trials.Not specifiedA PrioriScoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27600407GIST 2.0: A scalable multi-trait metric for quantifying population representativeness of individual clinical studies.Not specifiedA PrioriScoreGIST 2.0
PubMed27753599External validity of a contemporaneous primary percutaneous coronary intervention trial in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: insights from a single-centre investigation.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO27863344Selection criteria limit generalizability of smoking pharmacotherapy studies differentially across clinical trials and laboratory studies: A systematic review on varenicline.SmokingBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27638094Generalizability of the Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) Results to Contemporary North American Men with Prostate Cancer.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27779514Patient Eligibility for Randomized Controlled Trials in Critical Care Medicine: An International Two-Center Observational Study.Critical careBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed27984524Investigating generalizability of results from a randomized controlled trial of the management of chronic widespread pain: the MUSICIAN study.PainA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28028598A comparison of the MOMS trial results to a contemporaneous, single-institution, postnatal closure cohort.Neuronal diseasesBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28118923Computer-aided assessment of the generalizability of clinical trial results.Not specifiedA PosterioriScoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28125858Generalizability analysis for clinical trials: a simulation study.Not specifiedA PosterioriScorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed28191694Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.Drug or alcohol abuseA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed28230450Characteristics and Medication Use of Psoriasis Patients Who May or May Not Qualify for Randomized Controlled Trials.Skin diseasesA PrioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28434933Assessing the Eligibility Criteria in Phase III Randomized Controlled Trials of Drug Therapy in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The Critical Play-Off Between a "Pure" Patient Phenotype and the Generalizability of Trial Findings.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28511033Comparing adult cannabis treatment-seekers enrolled in a clinical trial with national samples of cannabis users in the United States.Not specifiedA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28722466Assessing the Generalizability of the National Lung Screening Trial: Comparison of Patients with Stage 1 Disease.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed28763313Generalizability of EXCEL and NOBLE results to a large registry population with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
PubMed28972695Testing the external validity of EORTC 30904 comparing overall survival after radical nephrectomy vs nephron sparing surgery in contemporary North American patients with renal cell cancer.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed29025047The representativeness of eligible patients in type 2 diabetes trials: a case study using GIST 2.0.Endocrine diseaseA PrioriScoreGIST 2.0
PubMed29153885Are the Results of the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment Trial Applicable to Contemporary Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy? Results from Two High-volume European Institutions.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
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PubMed29426695Only <10% of Patients Selected for Radical Prostatectomy Reach the Competing Mortality Rate of the Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT).CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
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CINAHL29701877Nutrition Therapy in Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Units: An International Comparison Study.NutritionA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
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CINAHL30094623Similar Sustained Virologic Response in Real-World and Clinical Trial Studies of Hepatitis C/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection.HIV/AIDSA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL30189998Generalizing Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment to Adults With Diabetes Mellitus.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
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PubMed30466715Applicability of trials in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trial populations showing adequate proportion of women, but underrepresentation of elderly people.Musculoskeletal diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed30477321A data-zone scoring system to assess the generalizability of clinical trial results to individual patients.Not specifiedA PosterioriScoreComparing populations in clinical studies
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PubMed30685675Generalizability of the FOURIER trial to routine clinical care: Do trial participants represent patients in everyday practice?Cardiovascular diseasesBothNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL30252687Diagnostic Assessment of Assumptions for External Validity: An Example Using Data in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.CancerA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL30312378Comparison of Methods to Generalize Randomized Clinical Trial Results Without Individual-Level Data for the Target Population.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed30420256Cytoreductive Nephrectomy: Assessing the Generalizability of the CARMENA Trial to Real-world National Cancer Data Base Cases.CancerA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed30673974Generalizability of SPRINT-CKD cohort to CKD patients referred to renal clinics.Kidney diseaseA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
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Cochrane30746585Characteristics and Cardiovascular Disease Event Rates among African Americans and Whites Who Meet the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) Trial Inclusion CriteriaCardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed30819552Generalizability of the REDUCE-IT Trial in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.Cardiovascular diseasesA PosterioriNon-scoreComparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed30822358A Standardisation Approach to Compare Treatment Safety and Effectiveness Outcomes between Clinical Trials and Real World Populations in Psoriasis.Skin diseasesA PosterioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL30846172Effect of prior cancer on trial eligibility and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Implications for clinical trial accrual.CancerA PrioriNon-scorePropensity score weighting/matching